Headphone leakage effects can have a profound effect on low frequency performance of headphones. A large survey, including over 2000 individual headphone measurements, was undertaken in order to compare leakage effects on test subjects and leakage effects of the same headphones measured on a test fixture. Ten different commercially available headphones were used, each measured on eight different test subjects and a test fixture with several sets of pinnae. Modifications to the pinnae were investigated to see if the leakage effects measured on the test fixture could be made to better match the real word leakage effects measured on human test subjects.
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