Level and Time Panning of Phantom Images for Musical Sources
The localization behaviors of panning based on interchannel level difference (ICLD) and interchannel time difference (ICTD) at different target image positions were investigated using musical sources with different spectral and temporal characteristics as well as a wideband speech source. The results indicate that a level panning can perform robustly regardless of the spectral and temporal characteristics of source signals, whereas time panning is not suitable for a continuous source with a high fundamental frequency. Statistical differences between the data obtained for different sources were found to be insignificant, and a unified set of ICLD and ICTD values for 10°, 20°, and 30° image positions was derived. Linear level and time panning functions for the two separate panning regions of 0°–20° and 21°–30° are further proposed, and their applicability to arbitrary loudspeaker base angle is also considered. These perceptual panning functions are expected to be more accurate than the theoretical sine or tangent law in terms of matching between predicted and actually perceived image positions.
Click to purchase paper or login as an AES member. If your company or school subscribes to the E-Library then switch to the institutional version. If you are not an AES member and would like to subscribe to the E-Library then Join the AES!
This paper costs $33 for non-members, $5 for AES members and is free for E-Library subscribers.