In this paper, an investigation into the localisation accuracy of Higher Order Ambisonic sound elds with reference to Vector Based Amplitude Panning (VBAP) is presented. The analysis is considered in relation to listeners who are not located in the acoustic sweet spot. The performance of velocity, energy, in-phase and psychoacoustically optimized Ambisonic decoders are compared over a horizontal-only 8-channel array. Results demonstrate that 3rd order Ambisonics with energy decode gives equivalent localisation performance to VBAP for o -centre listening.
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