Loudspeaker formats that can maintain imagery with observer movement and turning are investigated. Simple array configurations using controlled directivity sources are used to create shaped wave-fronts that allow placed broadband sources to be represented over significant solid angles. The perception of fields of placed sources that remain so with observer movement and turning is explained with reference to the ITD/IID perceptual model. It is found that significant improvements over present equidistant formats can be achieved. Prototype designs and practical issues are reported. The implications for a new generation of reproduction formats and related capture issues are considered. Patent applications apply to aspects of this work.
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