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Modeling the Broadband Time-of-Arrival of the Head-Related Transfer Functions for Binaural Audio

Binaural audio is based on the head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) that provide directional cues for the localization of virtual sound sources. HRTFs incorporate the time-of-arrival (TOA), the monaural timing information yielding the interaural time difference, essential for the rendering of multiple virtual sound sources. In this study we propose a method to robustly estimate spatially continuous TOA from an HRTF set. The method is based on a directional outlier remover and a geometrical model of the HRTF measurement setup. We show results for HRTFs of human listeners from three HRTF databases. The benefits of calculating the TOA in the light of the HRTF analysis, modifications, and synthesis are discussed.

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