A common method for displaying, modeling, and equalizing the frequency response of audio systems is to use smoothing to eliminate the raggedness of the response. Fixed-pole parallel filters, which produce modest computational loading for both signal filtering and parameter estimation, possess the beneficial properties of smoothing. This makes them an efficient method for modeling or equalizing audio systems. The resolution of smoothing is controlled by the choice of pole frequencies: for obtaining a smoothing with 1/ß-octave resolution, ß/2 pole pairs are placed in each octave (e.g., sixth-octave resolution is achieved by having three pole pairs per octave). In addition, an analysis shows the theoretical equivalence of parallel filters and Kautz filters; the formulas for converting the parameters of the two types of filter are given.
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