Clean Audio for TV broadcast: An Object-Based Approach for Hearing-Impaired Viewers - April 2015
Audibility of a CD-Standard A/DA/A Loop Inserted into High-Resolution Audio Playback - September 2007
Sound Board: Food for Thought, Aesthetics in Orchestra Recording - April 2015
Loudness Range (LRA) - Design and Evaluation
Loudness Range (LRA) is a measure of the variation of loudness on a macroscopic time-scale. Essentially, LRA is the difference in loudness level between the soft and loud parts of a programme. In 2009 the algorithm for computing LRA was published by TC Electronic, and was then included in the EBU R-128 recommendation for loudness normalisation. This paper describes the design choices underlying of the LRA algorithm. For each of its parameters the interval of optimal values is presented, supported by analyses of audio examples. Consequences of setting parameter values outside these intervals are also described. Although the LRA has already proven its usefulness in practice, this paper provides background knowledge that could support further refinement and standardisation of the LRA measure.
Click to purchase paper or login as an AES member. If your company or school subscribes to the E-Library then switch to the institutional version. If you are not an AES member and would like to subscribe to the E-Library then Join the AES!
This paper costs $20 for non-members, $5 for AES members and is free for E-Library subscribers.