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The Effect of Loudness Overflow on Equal-Loudness-Level Contours

This paper presents a formal derivation of the Loudness Overflow Effect (LOE), which describes the impact of nonlinear distortion on loudness. Computational analysis is then performed, comprised of two experiments involving two compressive static nonlinearities, and using two well-known time-varying loudness models. The results characterize the nonlinearities in terms of LOE as a function of frequency and of listening level in the case of 250-ms pure-tone stimuli, and in terms of the traditional equal-loudness-level contours. The analysis is then extended to synthesized wind instruments for one of the nonlinearities. The effect of the nonlinearity on loudness as a function of musical note fundamental frequency and listening level is described for various synthesized instruments.

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