Adding a series capacitor to a closed-box loudspeaker modestly extends the low-frequency response, enabling the use of a smaller enclosure. In addition, the capacitor offers substantial protection against excessive voice-coil excursions from subsonic input signals. The capacitor converts a second-order system to third order. A design procedure for the composite system in closed form is provided, allowing the resulting transfer function to be optimized for group delay, frequency response, and cone excursion.
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