The loudspeaker designer faces many challenges when designing a new loudspeaker system. The proposed solution is to replace the mathematically complicated series circuit of the radiation impedance by a new one that can easily be introduced into a loudspeaker circuit in the whole frequency range. It facilitates a designing process and enables to learn more about the loudspeaker. The fundamental resonance in air is lower than in vacuum and depends on the radiating surface, as ACOUSTIC QUALITY, which also depends on frequency. 1/QT=1/QE+1/QM+1/QA. The parameters affect the SPL and efficiency response. Investigated structures: pulsating sphere, baffled circular, square and rectangular piston, infinite strip, unflanged pipe-piston, finally horn (0-infinity Hz).
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