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Prediction of Harmonic Distortion Generated by Electro-Dynamic Loudspeakers Using Cascade of Hammerstein Models

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Audio rendering systems are always slightly nonlinear. Their non-linearities must be modeled and measured for quality evaluation and control purposes. Cascade of Hammerstein models describes a large class of non-linearities. To identify the elements of such a model, a method based on a phase property of exponential sine sweeps is proposed. A complete model of non-linearities is identified from a single measurement. Cascade of Hammerstein models corresponding to an electro-dynamic loudspeaker are identified this way. Harmonic distortion is afterward predicted using the identified models. Comparisons with classical measurements techniques show that harmonic distortion is accurately predicted by the identified models over the entire audio frequency range for any desired input amplitude.

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