Although acoustics of the external ear has been studied extensively for auralization and hearing aids, the acoustic behavior with insert headphones is not as well known. Our research focused on the effects of outer ear physical dimensions, particularly to sound pressure at the eardrum. The main parameter was the length of the canal, but eardrum’s damping of resonances was also studied. Ear canal simulators and a dummy head were constructed. Measurements were also performed from human ear canals. The study was carried out both with unblocked ear canals and when the canal entrance was blocked with an insert earphone. Special insert earphones with in-ear microphones were constructed for this purpose. Physics-based computational models were finally used to validate the approach.
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