This paper investigates the effects of interaural time and level differences (ITDs and ILDs, respectively) on loudness. Dichotic samples containing various amounts of interaural differences were compared to a diotic reference. The subjects adjusted the relative threshold gain of the test sample using a two-alternative, forced choice adaptive procedure (2AFC). The test signals were Gaussian noise samples with a bandwidth of one critical band and center frequencies of 150, 600, and 2400 Hz. The results imply that ILD is prominently responsible for changes in directional loudness, which is in agreement with present binaural loudness models that consider only ILD. The experiments revealed significant individual differences between subjects even when matching two identical signals.
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