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Digital Audio Authenticity Using the Electric Network Frequency

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With the advent of personal computers, hand-held electronic devices and the huge transition to all things digital, Digital Audio Authenticity (DAA) has become an increasingly important issue. With digital audio it is easy for anyone with a computer to copy, alter, mix together or otherwise change the recording and it is usually difficult to detect such changes. There is often no correct indication of when the recording was made, altered or recorded over. This paper is largely a test report on the Electric Network Frequency (ENF) variations in the three United States power grids. It will also show how using the ENF in digital audio can authenticate a recording, determine if it is a copy, time stamp the original and a copy, and possibly determine stops and starts in a recording. This research is partially funded by the Department of Justice.

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