Simple one-dimensional waveguide models of loudspeaker enclosures describe well enclosures with simple interior geometry, but their accuracy is limited if used with more complex internal structures. The paper compares the results from one-dimensional models to FEM models for some simplified enclosure geometries found in typical designs. Based on these results it is apparent that one-dimensional models need to be refined to take some three-dimensional aspects of the sound field in close proximity of drivers into account. Approximations matched to FEM solutions are presented for enclosure impedance as seen by the driver and for the end correction of ports, taking both edge rounding and distance to the back wall into account.
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