Semiconductor and solid state devices have been used extensively to measure and generate stresses and stress waves in solids, liquids and gases. Semiconductor devices have been used as strain gages to measure strains and to respond to acoustic pressures. P type silicon has a gage factor of over 100 times that of a metallic strain gage. By using the amplifying regimes of Esaki diodes and transistors, a great increase in sensitivity is obtained and microphones have been constructed that are more sensitive than the carbon microphone. With the advent of monolithic transistors on single chips and films, it appears likely that the most stable and economical devices are obtained by separating the pick up and amplifying functions.
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