In multi-bit delta-sigma digital-to-analog converters (DACs), the distortion from physical element mismatch can be spectrally shaped using dynamic element matching (DEM). A problem with all DEM schemes is that the complexity increases very rapidly with the number of levels in the DAC. To reduce DEM complexity for DACs with many bits, DEM segmentation using a dedicated segmentation delta-sigma modulator (DSM) has previously been suggested. Published segmentation-DSMs have usually been first-order error feedback designs, to maximize the DEM complexity reduction and to minimize the analog overhead. In this paper high-order segmentation-DSMs will be investigated and improved solutions proposed.
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