The presented electrostatic loudspeakers are exceptionally useful in several audio reproduction usages. The amount of reflections deteriorating the sound quality is minimized and the amount of disturbance at surrounding space is diminished by their high directivity. The created plane waves travel long distances with minimal spatial spreading and attenuation. Three signal processing techniques are discussed, which combine beneficially with the characteristics of the loudspeaker elements. Firstly, a device is presented which automatically adapts the sound pressure level according to measured ambient noise level. Secondly, to overcome the lack of directivity and sound pressure at low frequencies, the principle of missing fundamental frequency is used. Thirdly, use of stereo dipole technique is demonstrated to provide an exceptional spatial sound image when used in combination with directive transducers.
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