[Tutorial] The relationship between nonlinear distortion measurements and nonlinearities is addressed— the physical causes for signal distortion in loudspeakers, headphones, microspeakers, and other transducers. Using simulation techniques characteristic symptoms are identified for each nonlinearity and presented systematically in a guide for loudspeaker diagnostics. This information is important for understanding the implications of nonlinear parameters and for performing measurements that describe the loudspeaker more comprehensively. Practical applications of the new technique are demonstrated on three different loudspeakers.
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