Modal Analysis and Nonlinear Normal Modes (NNM) on Moving Assemblies of Loudspeakers
The most important modes for a direct acoustic radiator are the axial modes, which are axisymmetric circular modes of a high temporal and spatial coherence . Numeric modal analysis and measurement of the free and forced accelerations and displacement responses of the moving assemblies are performed to establish the main modes involved in the acoustic response. The axial modes had been identified by measurements (within the intrinsic degree of uncertainty). The experiences show evidence of clearly nonlinear normal modes (NNM)  and , justifying the high complexity of mode finding in loudspeaker cones. Based on the axial modes, a three degrees of freedom model is proposed, where only one of the masses is externally forced. The modal analysis of a double cone speaker has been treated in short form.
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