The broadcast, satellite and cable television industries have been plagued for years by the inability of personnel to reliably measure and thus consistently control program loudness utilizing traditional measurement devices and methods. As a result, most listeners feel compelled to make adjustments to their television volume controls (in the home). A recent survey of channel-to-channel and program-to-program level discrepancies confirms that the current practice is unacceptable to listeners. In this paper we propose and describe several measurement techniques designed to reliably measure program loudness and enable effective loudness control.
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