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Analysis and Modeling of the Bi-Directional Fluid Flow in Loudspeaker Ports

Bass reflex ports are used in loudspeakers to enhance low frequency performance. At low sound levels the port extends the low frequency response by supplying one of the components of a Helmholtz resonator. At higher sound levels the turbulent intensity in the port increases disrupting the Helmoholtz resonance causing distortion, noise and compression. Although there has been significant work done to reduce these negative effects, no optimal solution has been found. To better understand the flow phenomena within the port, Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, was used to model the flow. The flow was simulated for six port profiles over a wide range of sound levels. In order to correlate the results of the CFD work to the real world, the same six ports were prototyped and subjected to several objective and subjective tests.

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