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Distortion in Phonograph Reproduction

Three distortion methods, the harmonic, the SMPTE intermodulation, and the difference frequency (CCIF), have been studied mainly on a theoretical basis, as a means of analyzing distortion encountered in phonograph reproduction. The harmonic method is somewhat difficult to apply, and some of the harmonics may be beyond the range of the system. The IM method has been used in the past with considerable success and appears to be a good method of analyzing tracing distortion. The difference frequency method appears to be somewhat insensitive to tracing distortion but offers advantages in that the analysis may be made right up to the cutoff frequency of the system.

JAES Volume 1 Issue 1 pp. 78-85; January 1953
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AES - Audio Engineering Society