As a student technician I would spend several days each month helping experienced engineers to minimise the noise in and around an audio mixing console system prior to it's final test. Despite the fact that fully tested modules worked satisfactorily on the bench, they behaved quite differently when connected together in a console frame. The main interference problems fell into the category of hum or buzz. This was dealt with by a process called "finding the hum loops". In recent years I have discovered this was all unnecessary. The introduction of the EMC directive with its professional audio EMC standards EN 55103- 1/2, has helped us to solve these problems and abandon our decades-old poor engineering practices.
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