The voice-coil peak displacement Xmax is an important driver parameter for assessing the maximum acoustic output at low frequencies. The existing standard AES2-1984 defines the peak displacement Xmax by measuring harmonic distortion in either voice-coil current or displacement. This freedom of choice gives completely different and controversial results. After a critical review of this performance-based technique, an amendment of this method is suggested. Alternatively, a parameter-based method is developed giving more detailed information about the cause of the distortion, limitations, and defects. The relationship between performance-based and parameter-based methods is discussed, and both techniques are tested with real drivers.
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