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The Air and Wood Modes of the Violin

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It is known today that the tone and playing qualities of a violin are based on unique combinations of an air subsystem (the cavity modes) and a mechanical subsystem (the body modes). Much of the research conducted over the past 20 years on the mechanisms underlying the tonal effects of frequency relationships between two strong cavity modes and three important body modes of the violin below 1 kHz has been collected. The following topics are discussed and documented: 'playing in' a violin; long-term vibration; violins suitable for solo, orchestra, chamber music, and 'hausmusik'; body dimensions and viola tone; the basic concept for the new violin family; fingerboard thinning, tailpiece adjustments, and methods of working with these for desired results.

JAES Volume 46 Issue 9 pp. 751-765; September 1998
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AES - Audio Engineering Society