Nonindividualized head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are known to cause significant front-back and elevation confusions when used for three-dimensional sound systems. In addition headphones tend to induce in-head localization and rear perceptual bias. A method of concha excitation is proposed as a means of introducing individual cues without the need of individual HRTF measurements, which may overcome some of these difficulties. A prototype headphone was designed and tested.
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