This paper presents a theoretical basis and practical implementation of a microphone technique, which combines first-order gradient and second-order gradient unidirectional characteristics, and allows for a degree of the adjustment of magnitude and polar response. The proposed technique, through transition into the second-order gradient system, extends the high directivity of pickup to low frequencies. This is desirable because most instruments radiate low frequencies unidirectionally and low frequency energy is not easily dissipated in a room. The result of this application is a more defined sound with less low frequency ambient leakage and improved separation.
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