In recent years boundary-layer microphones with pressure transducers have come into use. Here, an electret capsule is either positioned with its diaphragm opposed but nearly flush with a hard surface or mounted totally flush in the surface, facing the sound-source. If a suited pressure-gradient transducer is mounted with its main axis parallel to the boundary, any directional characteristic can be achieved such as half-cardioid or half-hypercardioid, making use of all advantages of the boundary-layer microphony and also creating very advantageous directivity patterns.
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