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Total Difference Frequency Distortion: Practical Measurements

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A practical distortion meter using modern digital and analog integrated circuits has been designed to measure IEC Total Difference-Frequency Distortion (TDFD). The low noise and residuals of this instrument permit measurements down to one part per million (0.0001%) of distortion for signal levels of only one volt peak-to-peak. The fully in-band TDFD test is simple, rapid, sensitive, and stringent, enabling informative results to be obtained on all classes of equipment. Sample measurements are presented for amplifiers, preamplifiers, reel-to-reel and cassette tape recorders, a digital recording adapter, and a loudspeaker.

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AES - Audio Engineering Society