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Modeling Nonlinearity of Air with Volterra Kernels for Use in a Parametric Array Loudspeaker

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The use of a parametric array in air as a directional audio loudspeaker has been reported in previous literature and the self-demodulation phenomenon is well-understood to seriously distort the generated audible sound as a result of inter-modulation distortion. We propose to model the nonlinear interaction in air using a second-order Volterra kernel at the Rayleigh distance within which sound intensity and parametric conversion efficiency are assumed to be high. Results first obtained from Burgers' equation-based numerical simulations and actual measurements are then used in the nonlinear system identification process.

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