In order to have interchangeable tape recordings, standards are needed for frequency response characteristics and for the absolute value of the recorded flux. It is shown that the recorded signal is best measured and specified as the -shortcircuit flux per unit track width-; and measurement techniques are reviewed. The need for equalization, and the division into recording and reproducing equalization, are developed. Standard equalizations of many organizations are shown as flux characteristics. Standard reference fluxes and operating levels are tabulated and discussed. The terms necessary for response and level standardization are proposed and defined, and, since terms are not defined in presently published standards, those defined here are compared with usages of the standards.
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