The vibroacoustic behavior of a set of prototype loudspeakers below 1 kHz was studied in detail by comparing measurements and element model simulations. Sound fields were measured using a microphone array of electret capsules designed for the purpose and vibrations using a laser vibrometer and accelerometers. Simulations were carried out using analytical, finite- and boundary-element methods, and finite-difference methods. The enclosure conditions were varied from a fixed wall case buried in sand to a free-standing empty box and a freestanding damped box. The applicability of each modeling technique is discussed.
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